Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of their birth, their current age and other demographic factors including sex. The most commonly used measure of life expectancy is at birth (LEB), which can be defined in two ways. Cohort LEB is the mean length of life of an actual birth cohort (all individuals born a given year) and can be computed only for cohorts born many decades ago, so that all their members have died. Period LEB is the mean length of life of a hypothetical cohort assumed to be exposed, from birth through death, to the mortality rates observed at a given year.
National LEB figures reported by statistical national agencies and international organizations are indeed estimates of period LEB. In the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, LEB was 26 years; the 2010 world LEB was 67.2 years. For recent years, in Swaziland LEB is about 49, and in Japan, it is about 83. The combination of high infant mortality and deaths in young adulthood from accidents, epidemics, plagues, wars, and childbirth, particularly before modern medicine was widely available, significantly lowers LEB. But for those who survive early hazards, a life expectancy of 60 or 70 would not be uncommon. For example, a society with a LEB of 40 may have few people dying at precisely 40: most will die before 30 or after 55. In populations with high infant mortality rates, LEB is highly sensitive to the rate of death in the first few years of life. Because of this sensitivity to infant mortality, LEB can be subjected to gross misinterpretation, leading one to believe that a population with a low LEB will necessarily have a small proportion of older people. For example, in a hypothetical stationary population in which half the population dies before the age of five but everybody else dies at exactly 70 years old, LEB will be about 36, but about 25% of the population will be between the ages of 50 and 70. Another measure, such as life expectancy at age 5 (e5), can be used to exclude the effect of infant mortality to provide a simple measure of overall mortality rates other than in early childhood; in the hypothetical population above, life expectancy at 5 would be another 65. Aggregate population measures, such as the proportion of the population in various age groups, should also be used along individual-based measures like formal life expectancy when analyzing population structure and dynamics.
Mathematically, life expectancy is the mean number of years of life remaining at a given age, assuming age-specific mortality rates remain at their most recently measured levels. It is denoted by

e

x

{displaystyle e_{x}}
,[a] which means the mean number of subsequent years of life for someone now aged

x

{displaystyle x}
, according to a particular mortality experience. Longevity, maximum lifespan, and life expectancy are not synonyms. Life expectancy is defined statistically as the mean number of years remaining for an individual or a group of people at a given age. Longevity refers to the characteristics of the relatively long life span of some members of a population. Maximum lifespan is the age at death for the longest-lived individual of a species. Moreover, because life expectancy is an average, a particular person may die many years before or many years after the “expected” survival. The term “maximum life span” has a quite different meaning and is more related to longevity.
Life expectancy is also used in plant or animal ecology; life tables (also known as actuarial tables). The term life expectancy may also be used in the context of manufactured objects, but the related term shelf life is used for consumer products, and the terms “mean time to breakdown” (MTTB) and “mean time between failures” (MTBF) are used in engineering.

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21 step app system

The USMLE Step 1 (more commonly just Step 1 or colloquially, The Boards) is the first part of the United States Medical Licensing Examination. It assesses whether medical school students or graduates can apply important concepts of the foundational sciences fundamental to the practice of medicine. US medical students, as well as non-US medical students who wish to seek licensure to practice medicine in the US, typically take Step 1 at the end of the second year of medical school. Graduates of international medical schools (i.e., those outside the US or Canada) must also take Step 1 if they want to practice in the US. Graduates from international medical schools must apply through ECFMG, and the registration fee is $850. For 2016, the NBME registration fee for the test is $600, with additional charges for applicants who choose a testing region outside the United States or Canada.

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PLR may refer to:
Political parties:
Partito liberale-radicale svizzero, Italian name for the Free Democratic Party of Switzerland
Partidul Liberal Reformator, Romanian title for the Liberal Reformist Party (Moldova)
Partidul Liberal Reformator, Romanian title for the Liberal Reformist Party (Romania)
Liberal Renewal Party, a Panamanian party of the 1930s and '40s – see for example Panamanian Constitutional Assembly election, 1945
Partido Liberal Radical or Radical Liberal Party (Paraguay)
PLR.Les Libéraux-Radicaux and PLR.I Liberali, French and Italian names respectively for FDP.The Liberals, a Swiss political party
Codes:
ICAO airline designator for Northwestern Air
IATA code for St. Clair County Airport, Pell City, Alabama, United States
ISO 639-3 code for the Palaka language, spoken in Ivory Coast
As an acronym:
Past life regression, a technique that uses hypnosis to recover what most practitioners believe are memories of past lives or incarnations
Prime Lending Rate or Prime Rate, a term applied in many countries to a reference interest rate used by banks
Private label rights, an intellectual property right
Private letter ruling, a written decision by the US Internal Revenue Service
Public Lending Right, payment to authors for use of their works in public libraries
Pulse link repeater, a telecommunications device
Point of local repair, a term used in MPLS local protection in telecommunications networks
Psycho+Logical-Records, an American record label
PLR group, a common algebraic group studied in Neo-Riemannian theory
PLR or People's Liberation and Resistance group, a fictional faction in the Battlefield franchise
Other uses:
WPLR, also known as 99.1 PLR, an rock album-oriented radio station based out of New Haven, Connecticut, United States

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International Disaster Emergency Service (IDES) is a 501c3 non-profit organization based in Noblesville, Indiana, United States that seeks to meet the physical and spiritual needs of suffering people around the world in the name of Jesus Christ. The organization is primarily funded by Christian Churches and Churches of Christ. Much of its relief effort is done through local churches and missionaries already in place in the countries needing assistance.
IDES has offered assistance in over 100 countries around the world.

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